The BLAS Interface¶
The cvxopt.blas
module provides an interface to the doubleprecision
real and complex Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS). The names and
calling sequences of the Python functions in the interface closely match
the corresponding Fortran BLAS routines (described in the references below)
and their functionality is exactly the same. Many of the operations
performed by the BLAS routines can be implemented in a more straightforward
way by using the matrix arithmetic of the section Arithmetic Operations,
combined with the slicing and indexing of the section Indexing and Slicing.
As an example, C = A * B
gives the same result as the BLAS call
gemm(A, B, C)
. The BLAS interface offers two advantages. First,
some of the functions it includes are not easily implemented using the
basic matrix arithmetic. For example, BLAS includes functions that
efficiently exploit symmetry or triangular matrix structure. Second, there
is a performance difference that can be significant for large matrices.
Although our implementation of the basic matrix arithmetic makes internal
calls to BLAS, it also often requires creating temporary matrices to store
intermediate results. The BLAS functions on the other hand always operate
directly on their matrix arguments and never require any copying to
temporary matrices. Thus they can be viewed as generalizations of the
inplace matrix addition and scalar multiplication of the section
Arithmetic Operations to more complicated operations.
See also
 C. L. Lawson, R. J. Hanson, D. R. Kincaid, F. T. Krogh, Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms for Fortran Use, ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 5(3), 309323, 1975.
 J. J. Dongarra, J. Du Croz, S. Hammarling, R. J. Hanson, An Extended Set of Fortran Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 14(1), 117, 1988.
 J. J. Dongarra, J. Du Croz, S. Hammarling, I. Duff, A Set of Level 3 Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 16(1), 117, 1990.
Matrix Classes¶
The BLAS exploit several types of matrix structure: symmetric, Hermitian,
triangular, and banded. We represent all these matrix classes by dense
real or complex matrix
objects, with additional
arguments that specify the structure.
 Vector
 A real or complex vector is represented by a
matrix
of type'd'
or'z'
and length , with the entries of the vector stored in columnmajor order.  General matrix
 A general real or complex by matrix is represented
by a real or complex
matrix
of size (, ).  Symmetric matrix
A real or complex symmetric matrix of order is represented by a real or complex
matrix
of size (, ), and a character argumentuplo
with two possible values:'L'
and'U'
. Ifuplo
is'L'
, the lower triangular part of the symmetric matrix is stored; ifuplo
is'U'
, the upper triangular part is stored. A squarematrix
X
of size (, ) can therefore be used to represent the symmetric matrices Complex Hermitian matrix
A complex Hermitian matrix of order is represented by a
matrix
of type'z'
and size (, ), and a character argumentuplo
with the same meaning as for symmetric matrices. A complexmatrix
X
of size (, ) can represent the Hermitian matrices Triangular matrix
A real or complex triangular matrix of order is represented by a real or complex
matrix
of size (, ), and two character arguments: an argumentuplo
with possible values'L'
and'U'
to distinguish between lower and upper triangular matrices, and an argumentdiag
with possible values'U'
and'N'
to distinguish between unit and nonunit triangular matrices. A squarematrix
X
of size (, ) can represent the triangular matrices General band matrix
A general real or complex by band matrix with subdiagonals and superdiagonals is represented by a real or complex
matrix
X
of size (, ), and the two integers and . The diagonals of the band matrix are stored in the rows ofX
, starting at the top diagonal, and shifted horizontally so that the entries of column of the band matrix are stored in column ofX
. Amatrix
X
of size (, ) therefore represents the by band matrix Symmetric band matrix
A real or complex symmetric band matrix of order with subdiagonals, is represented by a real or complex matrix
X
of size (, ), and an argumentuplo
to indicate whether the subdiagonals (uplo
is'L'
) or superdiagonals (uplo
is'U'
) are stored. The diagonals are stored as rows ofX
, starting at the top diagonal (i.e., the main diagonal ifuplo
is'L'
, or the th superdiagonal ifuplo
is'U'
) and shifted horizontally so that the entries of the th column of the band matrix are stored in column ofX
. Amatrix
X
of size (, ) can therefore represent the band matrices Hermitian band matrix
A complex Hermitian band matrix of order with subdiagonals is represented by a complex matrix of size (, ) and an argument
uplo
, with the same meaning as for symmetric band matrices. Amatrix
X
of size (, ) can represent the band matrices Triangular band matrix
A triangular band matrix of order with subdiagonals or superdiagonals is represented by a real complex matrix of size (, ) and two character arguments
uplo
anddiag
, with similar conventions as for symmetric band matrices. Amatrix
X
of size (, ) can represent the band matrices
When discussing BLAS functions in the following sections we will omit several less important optional arguments that can be used to select submatrices for inplace operations. The complete specification is documented in the docstrings of the source code, and can be viewed with the pydoc help program.
Level 1 BLAS¶
The level 1 functions implement vector operations.

cvxopt.blas.
scal
(alpha, x)¶ Scales a vector by a constant:
If
x
is a realmatrix
, the scalar argumentalpha
must be a Python integer or float. Ifx
is complex,alpha
can be an integer, float, or complex.

cvxopt.blas.
nrm2
(x)¶ Euclidean norm of a vector: returns

cvxopt.blas.
asum
(x)¶ 1Norm of a vector: returns

cvxopt.blas.
iamax
(x)¶ Returns
If more than one coefficient achieves the maximum, the index of the first is returned.

cvxopt.blas.
swap
(x, y)¶ Interchanges two vectors:
x
andy
are matrices of the same type ('d'
or'z'
).

cvxopt.blas.
copy
(x, y)¶ Copies a vector to another vector:
x
andy
are matrices of the same type ('d'
or'z'
).

cvxopt.blas.
axpy
(x, y[, alpha = 1.0])¶ Constant times a vector plus a vector:
x
andy
are matrices of the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Ifx
is real, the scalar argumentalpha
must be a Python integer or float. Ifx
is complex,alpha
can be an integer, float, or complex.

cvxopt.blas.
dot
(x, y)¶ Returns
x
andy
are matrices of the same type ('d'
or'z'
).

cvxopt.blas.
dotu
(x, y)¶ Returns
x
andy
are matrices of the same type ('d'
or'z'
).
Level 2 BLAS¶
The level 2 functions implement matrixvector products and rank1 and rank2 matrix updates. Different types of matrix structure can be exploited using the conventions of the section Matrix Classes.

cvxopt.blas.
gemv
(A, x, y[, trans = 'N', alpha = 1.0, beta = 0.0])¶ Matrixvector product with a general matrix:
The arguments
A
,x
, andy
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Complex values ofalpha
andbeta
are only allowed ifA
is complex.

cvxopt.blas.
symv
(A, x, y[, uplo = 'L', alpha = 1.0, beta = 0.0])¶ Matrixvector product with a real symmetric matrix:
where is a real symmetric matrix. The arguments
A
,x
, andy
must have type'd'
, andalpha
andbeta
must be real.

cvxopt.blas.
hemv
(A, x, y[, uplo = 'L', alpha = 1.0, beta = 0.0])¶ Matrixvector product with a real symmetric or complex Hermitian matrix:
where is real symmetric or complex Hermitian. The arguments
A
,x
,y
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Complex values ofalpha
andbeta
are only allowed ifA
is complex.

cvxopt.blas.
trmv
(A, x[, uplo = 'L', trans = 'N', diag = 'N'])¶ Matrixvector product with a triangular matrix:
where is square and triangular. The arguments
A
andx
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
).

cvxopt.blas.
trsv
(A, x[, uplo = 'L', trans = 'N', diag = 'N'])¶ Solution of a nonsingular triangular set of linear equations:
where is square and triangular with nonzero diagonal elements. The arguments
A
andx
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
).

cvxopt.blas.
gbmv
(A, m, kl, x, y[, trans = 'N', alpha = 1.0, beta = 0.0])¶ Matrixvector product with a general band matrix:
where is a rectangular band matrix with rows and subdiagonals. The arguments
A
,x
,y
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Complex values ofalpha
andbeta
are only allowed ifA
is complex.

cvxopt.blas.
sbmv
(A, x, y[, uplo = 'L', alpha = 1.0, beta = 0.0])¶ Matrixvector product with a real symmetric band matrix:
where is a real symmetric band matrix. The arguments
A
,x
,y
must have type'd'
, andalpha
andbeta
must be real.

cvxopt.blas.
hbmv
(A, x, y[, uplo = 'L', alpha = 1.0, beta = 0.0])¶ Matrixvector product with a real symmetric or complex Hermitian band matrix:
where is a real symmetric or complex Hermitian band matrix. The arguments
A
,x
,y
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Complex values ofalpha
andbeta
are only allowed ifA
is complex.

cvxopt.blas.
tbmv
(A, x[, uplo = 'L', trans = 'N', diag = 'N'])¶ Matrixvector product with a triangular band matrix:
The arguments
A
andx
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
).

cvxopt.blas.
tbsv
(A, x[, uplo = 'L', trans = 'N', diag = 'N'])¶ Solution of a triangular banded set of linear equations:
where is a triangular band matrix of with nonzero diagonal elements. The arguments
A
andx
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
).

cvxopt.blas.
ger
(x, y, A[, alpha = 1.0])¶ General rank1 update:
where is a general matrix. The arguments
A
,x
, andy
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Complex values ofalpha
are only allowed ifA
is complex.

cvxopt.blas.
geru
(x, y, A[, alpha = 1.0])¶ General rank1 update:
where is a general matrix. The arguments
A
,x
, andy
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Complex values ofalpha
are only allowed ifA
is complex.

cvxopt.blas.
syr
(x, A[, uplo = 'L', alpha = 1.0])¶ Symmetric rank1 update:
where is a real symmetric matrix. The arguments
A
andx
must have type'd'
.alpha
must be a real number.

cvxopt.blas.
her
(x, A[, uplo = 'L', alpha = 1.0])¶ Hermitian rank1 update:
where is a real symmetric or complex Hermitian matrix. The arguments
A
andx
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
).alpha
must be a real number.

cvxopt.blas.
syr2
(x, y, A[, uplo = 'L', alpha = 1.0])¶ Symmetric rank2 update:
where is a real symmetric matrix. The arguments
A
,x
, andy
must have type'd'
.alpha
must be real.

cvxopt.blas.
her2
(x, y, A[, uplo = 'L', alpha = 1.0])¶ Symmetric rank2 update:
where is a a real symmetric or complex Hermitian matrix. The arguments
A
,x
, andy
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Complex values ofalpha
are only allowed ifA
is complex.
As an example, the following code multiplies the tridiagonal matrix
with the vector .
>>> from cvxopt import matrix
>>> from cvxopt.blas import gbmv
>>> A = matrix([[0., 1., 2.], [6., 4., 3.], [3., 1., 0.], [1., 0., 0.]])
>>> x = matrix([1., 1., 2., 2.])
>>> y = matrix(0., (3,1))
>>> gbmv(A, 3, 1, x, y)
>>> print(y)
[5.00e+00]
[ 1.20e+01]
[1.00e+00]
The following example illustrates the use of
tbsv
.
>>> from cvxopt import matrix
>>> from cvxopt.blas import tbsv
>>> A = matrix([6., 5., 1., 2.], (1,4))
>>> x = matrix(1.0, (4,1))
>>> tbsv(A, x) # x := diag(A)^{1}*x
>>> print(x)
[1.67e01]
[ 2.00e01]
[1.00e+00]
[ 5.00e01]
Level 3 BLAS¶
The level 3 BLAS include functions for matrixmatrix multiplication.

cvxopt.blas.
gemm
(A, B, C[, transA = 'N', transB = 'N', alpha = 1.0, beta = 0.0])¶ Matrixmatrix product of two general matrices:
where
The arguments
A
,B
, andC
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Complex values ofalpha
andbeta
are only allowed ifA
is complex.

cvxopt.blas.
symm
(A, B, C[, side = 'L', uplo = 'L', alpha =1.0, beta = 0.0])¶ Product of a real or complex symmetric matrix and a general matrix :
The arguments
A
,B
, andC
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Complex values ofalpha
andbeta
are only allowed ifA
is complex.

cvxopt.blas.
hemm
(A, B, C[, side = 'L', uplo = 'L', alpha = 1.0, beta = 0.0])¶ Product of a real symmetric or complex Hermitian matrix and a general matrix :
The arguments
A
,B
, andC
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Complex values ofalpha
andbeta
are only allowed ifA
is complex.

cvxopt.blas.
trmm
(A, B[, side = 'L', uplo = 'L', transA = 'N', diag = 'N', alpha = 1.0])¶ Product of a triangular matrix and a general matrix :
where
The arguments
A
andB
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Complex values ofalpha
are only allowed ifA
is complex.

cvxopt.blas.
trsm
(A, B[, side = 'L', uplo = 'L', transA = 'N', diag = 'N', alpha = 1.0])¶ Solution of a nonsingular triangular system of equations:
where
is triangular and is a general matrix. The arguments
A
andB
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Complex values ofalpha
are only allowed ifA
is complex.

cvxopt.blas.
syrk
(A, C[, uplo = 'L', trans = 'N', alpha = 1.0, beta = 0.0])¶ Rank update of a real or complex symmetric matrix :
where is a general matrix. The arguments
A
andC
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Complex values ofalpha
andbeta
are only allowed ifA
is complex.

cvxopt.blas.
herk
(A, C[, uplo = 'L', trans = 'N', alpha = 1.0, beta = 0.0])¶ Rank update of a real symmetric or complex Hermitian matrix :
where is a general matrix. The arguments
A
andC
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
).alpha
andbeta
must be real.

cvxopt.blas.
syr2k
(A, B, C[, uplo = 'L', trans = 'N', alpha = 1.0, beta = 0.0])¶ Rank update of a real or complex symmetric matrix :
and are general real or complex matrices. The arguments
A
,B
, andC
must have the same type. Complex values ofalpha
andbeta
are only allowed ifA
is complex.

cvxopt.blas.
her2k
(A, B, C[, uplo = 'L', trans = 'N', alpha = 1.0, beta = 0.0])¶ Rank update of a real symmetric or complex Hermitian matrix :
where and are general matrices. The arguments
A
,B
, andC
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). Complex values ofalpha
are only allowed ifA
is complex.beta
must be real.