The LAPACK Interface¶
The module cvxopt.lapack
includes functions for solving dense sets
of linear equations, for the corresponding matrix factorizations (LU,
Cholesky, LDL^{T}),
for solving leastsquares and leastnorm problems, for
QR factorization, for symmetric eigenvalue problems, singular value
decomposition, and Schur factorization.
In this chapter we briefly describe the Python calling sequences. For further details on the underlying LAPACK functions we refer to the LAPACK Users’ Guide and manual pages.
The BLAS conventional storage scheme of the section Matrix Classes is used. As in the previous chapter, we omit from the function definitions less important arguments that are useful for selecting submatrices. The complete definitions are documented in the docstrings in the source code.
General Linear Equations¶

cvxopt.lapack.
gesv
(A, B[, ipiv = None])¶ Solves
where and are real or complex matrices, with square and nonsingular.
The arguments
A
andB
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). On entry,B
contains the righthand side ; on exit it contains the solution . The optional argumentipiv
is an integer matrix of length at least . Ifipiv
is provided, thengesv
solves the system, replacesA
with the triangular factors in an LU factorization, and returns the permutation matrix inipiv
. Ifipiv
is not specified, thengesv
solves the system but does not return the LU factorization and does not modifyA
.Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is singular.

cvxopt.lapack.
getrf
(A, ipiv)¶ LU factorization of a general, possibly rectangular, real or complex matrix,
where is by .
The argument
ipiv
is an integer matrix of length at least min{, }. On exit, the lower triangular part ofA
is replaced by , the upper triangular part by , and the permutation matrix is returned inipiv
.Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is not full rank.

cvxopt.lapack.
getrs
(A, ipiv, B[, trans = 'N'])¶ Solves a general set of linear equations
given the LU factorization computed by
gesv
orgetrf
.On entry,
A
andipiv
must contain the factorization as computed bygesv
orgetrf
. On entry,B
contains the righthand side ; on exit it contains the solution .B
must have the same type asA
.

cvxopt.lapack.
getri
(A, ipiv)¶ Computes the inverse of a matrix.
On entry,
A
andipiv
must contain the factorization as computed bygesv
orgetrf
. On exit,A
contains the matrix inverse.
In the following example we compute
for randomly generated problem data, factoring the coefficient matrix once.
>>> from cvxopt import matrix, normal
>>> from cvxopt.lapack import gesv, getrs
>>> n = 10
>>> A = normal(n,n)
>>> b = normal(n)
>>> ipiv = matrix(0, (n,1))
>>> x = +b
>>> gesv(A, x, ipiv) # x = A^{1}*b
>>> x2 = +b
>>> getrs(A, ipiv, x2, trans='T') # x2 = A^{T}*b
>>> x += x2
Separate functions are provided for equations with band matrices.

cvxopt.lapack.
gbsv
(A, kl, B[, ipiv = None])¶ Solves
where and are real or complex matrices, with by and banded with subdiagonals.
The arguments
A
andB
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). On entry,B
contains the righthand side ; on exit it contains the solution . The optional argumentipiv
is an integer matrix of length at least . Ifipiv
is provided, thenA
must have rows. On entry the diagonals of are stored in rows to ofA
, using the BLAS format for general band matrices (see the section Matrix Classes). On exit, the factorization is returned inA
andipiv
. Ifipiv
is not provided, thenA
must have rows. On entry the diagonals of are stored in the rows ofA
, following the standard BLAS format for general band matrices. In this case,gbsv
does not modifyA
and does not return the factorization.Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is singular.

cvxopt.lapack.
gbtrf
(A, m, kl, ipiv)¶ LU factorization of a general by real or complex band matrix with subdiagonals.
The matrix is stored using the BLAS format for general band matrices (see the section Matrix Classes), by providing the diagonals (stored as rows of a by matrix
A
), the number of rows , and the number of subdiagonals . The argumentipiv
is an integer matrix of length at least min{, }. On exit,A
andipiv
contain the details of the factorization.Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is not full rank.

cvxopt.lapack.
gbtrs
({A, kl, ipiv, B[, trans = 'N'])¶ Solves a set of linear equations
with a general band matrix with subdiagonals, given the LU factorization computed by
gbsv
orgbtrf
.On entry,
A
andipiv
must contain the factorization as computed bygbsv
orgbtrf
. On entry,B
contains the righthand side ; on exit it contains the solution .B
must have the same type asA
.
As an example, we solve a linear equation with
>>> from cvxopt import matrix
>>> from cvxopt.lapack import gbsv, gbtrf, gbtrs
>>> n, kl, ku = 4, 2, 1
>>> A = matrix([[0., 1., 3., 6.], [2., 4., 7., 10.], [5., 8., 11., 0.], [9., 12., 0., 0.]])
>>> x = matrix(1.0, (n,1))
>>> gbsv(A, kl, x)
>>> print(x)
[ 7.14e02]
[ 4.64e01]
[2.14e01]
[1.07e01]
The code below illustrates how one can reuse the factorization returned
by gbsv
.
>>> Ac = matrix(0.0, (2*kl+ku+1,n))
>>> Ac[kl:,:] = A
>>> ipiv = matrix(0, (n,1))
>>> x = matrix(1.0, (n,1))
>>> gbsv(Ac, kl, x, ipiv) # solves A*x = 1
>>> print(x)
[ 7.14e02]
[ 4.64e01]
[2.14e01]
[1.07e01]
>>> x = matrix(1.0, (n,1))
>>> gbtrs(Ac, kl, ipiv, x, trans='T') # solve A^T*x = 1
>>> print(x)
[ 7.14e02]
[ 2.38e02]
[ 1.43e01]
[2.38e02]
An alternative method uses gbtrf
for the
factorization.
>>> Ac[kl:,:] = A
>>> gbtrf(Ac, n, kl, ipiv)
>>> x = matrix(1.0, (n,1))
>>> gbtrs(Ac, kl, ipiv, x) # solve A^T*x = 1
>>> print(x)
[ 7.14e02]
[ 4.64e01]
[2.14e01]
[1.07e01]
>>> x = matrix(1.0, (n,1))
>>> gbtrs(Ac, kl, ipiv, x, trans='T') # solve A^T*x = 1
>>> print(x)
[ 7.14e02]
[ 2.38e02]
[ 1.43e01]
[2.38e02]
The following functions can be used for tridiagonal matrices. They use a simpler matrix format, with the diagonals stored in three separate vectors.

cvxopt.lapack.
gtsv
(dl, d, du, B))¶ Solves
where is an by tridiagonal matrix.
The subdiagonal of is stored as a matrix
dl
of length , the diagonal is stored as a matrixd
of length , and the superdiagonal is stored as a matrixdu
of length . The four arguments must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). On exitdl
,d
,du
are overwritten with the details of the LU factorization of . On entry,B
contains the righthand side ; on exit it contains the solution .Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is singular.

cvxopt.lapack.
gttrf
(dl, d, du, du2, ipiv)¶ LU factorization of an by tridiagonal matrix.
The subdiagonal of is stored as a matrix
dl
of length , the diagonal is stored as a matrixd
of length , and the superdiagonal is stored as a matrixdu
of length .dl
,d
anddu
must have the same type.du2
is a matrix of length , and of the same type asdl
.ipiv
is an'i'
matrix of length . On exit, the five arguments contain the details of the factorization.Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is singular.

cvxopt.lapack.
gttrs
(dl, d, du, du2, ipiv, B[, trans = 'N'])¶ Solves a set of linear equations
where is an by tridiagonal matrix.
The arguments
dl
,d
,du
,du2
, andipiv
contain the details of the LU factorization as returned bygttrf
. On entry,B
contains the righthand side ; on exit it contains the solution .B
must have the same type as the other arguments.
Positive Definite Linear Equations¶

cvxopt.lapack.
posv
(A, B[, uplo = 'L'])¶ Solves
where is a real symmetric or complex Hermitian positive definite matrix.
On exit,
B
is replaced by the solution, andA
is overwritten with the Cholesky factor. The matricesA
andB
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
).Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is not positive definite.

cvxopt.lapack.
potrf
(A[, uplo = 'L'])¶ Cholesky factorization
of a positive definite real symmetric or complex Hermitian matrix .
On exit, the lower triangular part of
A
(ifuplo
is'L'
) or the upper triangular part (ifuplo
is'U'
) is overwritten with the Cholesky factor or its (conjugate) transpose.Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is not positive definite.

cvxopt.lapack.
potrs
(A, B[, uplo = 'L'])¶ Solves a set of linear equations
with a positive definite real symmetric or complex Hermitian matrix, given the Cholesky factorization computed by
posv
orpotrf
.On entry,
A
contains the triangular factor, as computed byposv
orpotrf
. On exit,B
is replaced by the solution.B
must have the same type asA
.

cvxopt.lapack.
potri
(A[, uplo = 'L'])¶ Computes the inverse of a positive definite matrix.
On entry,
A
contains the Cholesky factorization computed bypotrf
orposv
. On exit, it contains the matrix inverse.
As an example, we use posv
to solve the
linear system
(1)
by blockelimination. We first pick a random problem.
>>> from cvxopt import matrix, div, normal, uniform
>>> from cvxopt.blas import syrk, gemv
>>> from cvxopt.lapack import posv
>>> m, n = 100, 50
>>> A = normal(m,n)
>>> b1, b2 = normal(m), normal(n)
>>> d = uniform(m)
We then solve the equations
>>> Asc = div(A, d[:, n*[0]]) # Asc := diag(d)^{1}*A
>>> B = matrix(0.0, (n,n))
>>> syrk(Asc, B, trans='T') # B := Asc^T * Asc = A^T * diag(d)^{2} * A
>>> x1 = div(b1, d) # x1 := diag(d)^{1}*b1
>>> x2 = +b2
>>> gemv(Asc, x1, x2, trans='T', beta=1.0) # x2 := x2 + Asc^T*x1 = b2 + A^T*diag(d)^{2}*b1
>>> posv(B, x2) # x2 := B^{1}*x2 = B^{1}*(b2 + A^T*diag(d)^{2}*b1)
>>> gemv(Asc, x2, x1, beta=1.0) # x1 := Asc*x2  x1 = diag(d)^{1} * (A*x2  b1)
>>> x1 = div(x1, d) # x1 := diag(d)^{1}*x1 = diag(d)^{2} * (A*x2  b1)
There are separate routines for equations with positive definite band matrices.

cvxopt.lapack.
pbsv
(A, B[, uplo='L'])¶ Solves
where is a real symmetric or complex Hermitian positive definite band matrix.
On entry, the diagonals of are stored in
A
, using the BLAS format for symmetric or Hermitian band matrices (see section Matrix Classes). On exit,B
is replaced by the solution, andA
is overwritten with the Cholesky factor (in the BLAS format for triangular band matrices). The matricesA
andB
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
).Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is not positive definite.

cvxopt.lapack.
pbtrf
(A[, uplo = 'L'])¶ Cholesky factorization
of a positive definite real symmetric or complex Hermitian band matrix .
On entry, the diagonals of are stored in
A
, using the BLAS format for symmetric or Hermitian band matrices. On exit,A
contains the Cholesky factor, in the BLAS format for triangular band matrices.Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is not positive definite.

cvxopt.lapack.
pbtrs
(A, B[, uplo = 'L'])¶ Solves a set of linear equations
with a positive definite real symmetric or complex Hermitian band matrix, given the Cholesky factorization computed by
pbsv
orpbtrf
.On entry,
A
contains the triangular factor, as computed bypbsv
orpbtrf
. On exit,B
is replaced by the solution.B
must have the same type asA
.
The following functions are useful for tridiagonal systems.

cvxopt.lapack.
ptsv
(d, e, B)¶ Solves
where is an by positive definite real symmetric or complex Hermitian tridiagonal matrix.
The diagonal of is stored as a
'd'
matrixd
of length and its subdiagonal as a'd'
or'z'
matrixe
of length . The argumentse
andB
must have the same type. On exitd
contains the diagonal elements of in the LDL^{T} or LDL^{H} factorization of , ande
contains the subdiagonal elements of the unit lower bidiagonal matrix .B
is overwritten with the solution . Raises anArithmeticError
if the matrix is singular.

cvxopt.lapack.
pttrf
(d, e)¶ LDL^{T} or LDL^{H} factorization of an by positive definite real symmetric or complex Hermitian tridiagonal matrix .
On entry, the argument
d
is a'd'
matrix with the diagonal elements of . The argumente
is'd'
or'z'
matrix containing the subdiagonal of . On exitd
contains the diagonal elements of , ande
contains the subdiagonal elements of the unit lower bidiagonal matrix .Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is singular.

cvxopt.lapack.
pttrs
(d, e, B[, uplo = 'L'])¶ Solves a set of linear equations
where is an by positive definite real symmetric or complex Hermitian tridiagonal matrix, given its LDL^{T} or LDL^{H} factorization.
The argument
d
is the diagonal of the diagonal matrix . The argumentuplo
only matters for complex matrices. Ifuplo
is'L'
, then on exite
contains the subdiagonal elements of the unit bidiagonal matrix . Ifuplo
is'U'
, thene
contains the complex conjugates of the elements of the unit bidiagonal matrix . On exit,B
is overwritten with the solution .B
must have the same type ase
.
Symmetric and Hermitian Linear Equations¶

cvxopt.lapack.
sysv
(A, B[, ipiv = None, uplo = 'L'])¶ Solves
where is a real or complex symmetric matrix of order .
On exit,
B
is replaced by the solution. The matricesA
andB
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). The optional argumentipiv
is an integer matrix of length at least equal to . Ifipiv
is provided,sysv
solves the system and returns the factorization inA
andipiv
. Ifipiv
is not specified,sysv
solves the system but does not return the factorization and does not modifyA
.Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is singular.

cvxopt.lapack.
sytrf
(A, ipiv[, uplo = 'L'])¶ LDL^{T} factorization
of a real or complex symmetric matrix of order .
ipiv
is an'i'
matrix of length at least . On exit,A
andipiv
contain the factorization.Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is singular.

cvxopt.lapack.
sytrs
(A, ipiv, B[, uplo = 'L'])¶ Solves
given the LDL^{T} factorization computed by
sytrf
orsysv
.B
must have the same type asA
.

cvxopt.lapack.
sytri
(A, ipiv[, uplo = 'L'])¶ Computes the inverse of a real or complex symmetric matrix.
On entry,
A
andipiv
contain the LDL^{T} factorization computed bysytrf
orsysv
. On exit,A
contains the inverse.

cvxopt.lapack.
hesv
(A, B[, ipiv = None, uplo = 'L'])¶ Solves
where is a real symmetric or complex Hermitian of order .
On exit,
B
is replaced by the solution. The matricesA
andB
must have the same type ('d'
or'z'
). The optional argumentipiv
is an integer matrix of length at least . Ifipiv
is provided, thenhesv
solves the system and returns the factorization inA
andipiv
. Ifipiv
is not specified, thenhesv
solves the system but does not return the factorization and does not modifyA
.Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is singular.

cvxopt.lapack.
hetrf
(A, ipiv[, uplo = 'L'])¶ LDL^{H} factorization
of a real symmetric or complex Hermitian matrix of order .
ipiv
is an'i'
matrix of length at least . On exit,A
andipiv
contain the factorization.Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the matrix is singular.

cvxopt.lapack.
hetrs
(A, ipiv, B[, uplo = 'L'])¶ Solves

cvxopt.lapack.
hetri
(A, ipiv[, uplo = 'L'])¶ Computes the inverse of a real symmetric or complex Hermitian matrix.
On entry,
A
andipiv
contain the LDL^{H} factorization computed byhetrf
orhesv
. On exit,A
contains the inverse.
As an example we solve the KKT system (1).
>>> from cvxopt.lapack import sysv
>>> K = matrix(0.0, (m+n,m+n))
>>> K[: (m+n)*m : m+n+1] = d**2
>>> K[:m, m:] = A
>>> x = matrix(0.0, (m+n,1))
>>> x[:m], x[m:] = b1, b2
>>> sysv(K, x, uplo='U')
Triangular Linear Equations¶

cvxopt.lapack.
trtrs
(A, B[, uplo = 'L', trans = 'N', diag = 'N'])¶ Solves a triangular set of equations
where is real or complex and triangular of order , and is a matrix with rows.
A
andB
are matrices with the same type ('d'
or'z'
).trtrs
is similar toblas.trsm
, except that it raises anArithmeticError
if a diagonal element ofA
is zero (whereasblas.trsm
returnsinf
values).

cvxopt.lapack.
trtri
(A[, uplo = 'L', diag = 'N'])¶ Computes the inverse of a real or complex triangular matrix . On exit,
A
contains the inverse.

cvxopt.lapack.
tbtrs
(A, B[, uplo = 'L', trans = 'T', diag = 'N'])¶ Solves a triangular set of equations
where is real or complex triangular band matrix of order , and is a matrix with rows.
The diagonals of are stored in
A
using the BLAS conventions for triangular band matrices.A
andB
are matrices with the same type ('d'
or'z'
). On exit,B
is replaced by the solution .
LeastSquares and LeastNorm Problems¶

cvxopt.lapack.
gels
(A, B[, trans = 'N'])¶ Solves leastsquares and leastnorm problems with a full rank by matrix .
trans
is'N'
. If is greater than or equal to ,gels
solves the leastsquares problemIf is less than or equal to ,
gels
solves the leastnorm problemtrans
is'T'
or'C'
andA
andB
are real. If is greater than or equal to ,gels
solves the leastnorm problemIf is less than or equal to ,
gels
solves the leastsquares problemtrans
is'C'
andA
andB
are complex. If is greater than or equal to ,gels
solves the leastnorm problemIf is less than or equal to ,
gels
solves the leastsquares problem
A
andB
must have the same typecode ('d'
or'z'
).trans
='T'
is not allowed ifA
is complex. On exit, the solution is stored as the leading submatrix ofB
. The matrixA
is overwritten with details of the QR or the LQ factorization of .Note that
gels
does not check whether is full rank.
The following functions compute QR and LQ factorizations.

cvxopt.lapack.
geqrf
(A, tau)¶ QR factorization of a real or complex matrix
A
:If is by , then is by and orthogonal/unitary, and is by and upper triangular (if is greater than or equal to ), or upper trapezoidal (if is less than or equal to ).
tau
is a matrix of the same type asA
and of length min{, }. On exit, is stored in the upper triangular/trapezoidal part ofA
. The matrix is stored as a product of min{, } elementary reflectors in the first min{, } columns ofA
and intau
.

cvxopt.lapack.
gelqf
(A, tau)¶ LQ factorization of a real or complex matrix
A
:If is by , then is by and orthogonal/unitary, and is by and lower triangular (if is less than or equal to ), or lower trapezoidal (if is greater than or equal to ).
tau
is a matrix of the same type asA
and of length min{, }. On exit, is stored in the lower triangular/trapezoidal part ofA
. The matrix is stored as a product of min{, } elementary reflectors in the first min{, } rows ofA
and intau
.

cvxopt.lapack.
geqp3
(A, jpvt, tau)¶ QR factorization with column pivoting of a real or complex matrix :
If is by , then is by and orthogonal/unitary, and is by and upper triangular (if is greater than or equal to ), or upper trapezoidal (if is less than or equal to ).
tau
is a matrix of the same type asA
and of length min{, }.jpvt
is an integer matrix of length . On entry, ifjpvt[k]
is nonzero, then column of is permuted to the front of . Otherwise, column is a free column.On exit,
jpvt
contains the permutation : the operation is equivalent toA[:, jpvt1]
. is stored in the upper triangular/trapezoidal part ofA
. The matrix is stored as a product of min{, } elementary reflectors in the first min{,:math:n} columns ofA
and intau
.
In most applications, the matrix is not needed explicitly, and
it is sufficient to be able to make products with or its
transpose. The functions unmqr
and
ormqr
multiply a matrix
with the orthogonal matrix computed by
geqrf
.

cvxopt.lapack.
unmqr
(A, tau, C[, side = 'L', trans = 'N'])¶ Product with a real orthogonal or complex unitary matrix:
where
If
A
is by , then is square of order and orthogonal or unitary. is stored in the first min{, } columns ofA
and intau
as a product of min{, } elementary reflectors, as computed bygeqrf
. The matricesA
,tau
, andC
must have the same type.trans
='T'
is only allowed if the typecode is'd'
.

cvxopt.lapack.
ormqr
(A, tau, C[, side = 'L', trans = 'N'])¶ Identical to
unmqr
but works only for real matrices, and the possible values oftrans
are'N'
and'T'
.
As an example, we solve a leastsquares problem by a direct call to
gels
, and by separate calls to
geqrf
,
ormqr
, and
trtrs
.
>>> from cvxopt import blas, lapack, matrix, normal
>>> m, n = 10, 5
>>> A, b = normal(m,n), normal(m,1)
>>> x1 = +b
>>> lapack.gels(+A, x1) # x1[:n] minimizes  A*x  b _2
>>> tau = matrix(0.0, (n,1))
>>> lapack.geqrf(A, tau) # A = [Q1, Q2] * [R1; 0]
>>> x2 = +b
>>> lapack.ormqr(A, tau, x2, trans='T') # x2 := [Q1, Q2]' * x2
>>> lapack.trtrs(A[:n,:], x2, uplo='U') # x2[:n] := R1^{1} * x2[:n]
>>> blas.nrm2(x1[:n]  x2[:n])
3.0050798580569307e16
The next two functions make products with the orthogonal matrix computed
by gelqf
.

cvxopt.lapack.
unmlq
(A, tau, C[, side = 'L', trans = 'N'])¶ Product with a real orthogonal or complex unitary matrix:
where
If
A
is by , then is square of order and orthogonal or unitary. is stored in the first min{, } rows ofA
and intau
as a product of min{, } elementary reflectors, as computed bygelqf
. The matricesA
,tau
, andC
must have the same type.trans
='T'
is only allowed if the typecode is'd'
.

cvxopt.lapack.
ormlq
(A, tau, C[, side = 'L', trans = 'N'])¶ Identical to
unmlq
but works only for real matrices, and the possible values oftrans
or'N'
and'T'
.
As an example, we solve a leastnorm problem by a direct call to
gels
, and by separate calls to
gelqf
,
ormlq
,
and trtrs
.
>>> from cvxopt import blas, lapack, matrix, normal
>>> m, n = 5, 10
>>> A, b = normal(m,n), normal(m,1)
>>> x1 = matrix(0.0, (n,1))
>>> x1[:m] = b
>>> lapack.gels(+A, x1) # x1 minimizes x_2 subject to A*x = b
>>> tau = matrix(0.0, (m,1))
>>> lapack.gelqf(A, tau) # A = [L1, 0] * [Q1; Q2]
>>> x2 = matrix(0.0, (n,1))
>>> x2[:m] = b # x2 = [b; 0]
>>> lapack.trtrs(A[:,:m], x2) # x2[:m] := L1^{1} * x2[:m]
>>> lapack.ormlq(A, tau, x2, trans='T') # x2 := [Q1, Q2]' * x2
>>> blas.nrm2(x1  x2)
0.0
Finally, if the matrix is needed explicitly, it can be generated
from the output of geqrf
and
gelqf
using one of the following functions.

cvxopt.lapack.
ungqr
(A, tau)¶ If
A
has size by , andtau
has length , then, on entry, the firstk
columns of the matrixA
and the entries oftau
contai an unitary or orthogonal matrix of order , as computed bygeqrf
. On exit, the first min{, } columns of are contained in the leading columns ofA
.

cvxopt.lapack.
unglq
(A, tau)¶ If
A
has size by , andtau
has length , then, on entry, the firstk
rows of the matrixA
and the entries oftau
contain a unitary or orthogonal matrix of order , as computed bygelqf
. On exit, the first min{, } rows of are contained in the leading rows ofA
.
We illustrate this with the QR factorization of the matrix
>>> from cvxopt import matrix, lapack
>>> A = matrix([ [6., 6., 19., 6.], [5., 3., 2., 10.], [4., 4., 7., 5] ])
>>> m, n = A.size
>>> tau = matrix(0.0, (n,1))
>>> lapack.geqrf(A, tau)
>>> print(A[:n, :]) # Upper triangular part is R.
[2.17e+01 5.08e+00 4.76e+00]
[ 2.17e01 1.06e+01 2.66e+00]
[ 6.87e01 3.12e01 8.74e+00]
>>> Q1 = +A
>>> lapack.orgqr(Q1, tau)
>>> print(Q1)
[2.77e01 3.39e01 4.10e01]
[2.77e01 4.16e01 7.35e01]
[8.77e01 2.32e01 2.53e01]
[2.77e01 8.11e01 4.76e01]
>>> Q = matrix(0.0, (m,m))
>>> Q[:, :n] = A
>>> lapack.orgqr(Q, tau)
>>> print(Q) # Q = [ Q1, Q2]
[2.77e01 3.39e01 4.10e01 8.00e01]
[2.77e01 4.16e01 7.35e01 4.58e01]
[8.77e01 2.32e01 2.53e01 3.35e01]
[2.77e01 8.11e01 4.76e01 1.96e01]
The orthogonal matrix in the factorization
can be generated as follows.
>>> A = matrix([ [3., 2., 9.], [16., 12., 19.], [10., 3., 6.], [1., 4., 6.] ])
>>> m, n = A.size
>>> tau = matrix(0.0, (m,1))
>>> lapack.geqrf(A, tau)
>>> R = +A
>>> print(R) # Upper trapezoidal part is [R1, R2].
[9.70e+00 1.52e+01 3.09e+00 6.70e+00]
[1.58e01 2.30e+01 1.14e+01 1.92e+00]
[ 7.09e01 5.57e01 2.26e+00 2.09e+00]
>>> lapack.orgqr(A, tau)
>>> print(A[:, :m]) # Q is in the first m columns of A.
[3.09e01 8.98e01 3.13e01]
[ 2.06e01 3.85e01 9.00e01]
[9.28e01 2.14e01 3.04e01]
Symmetric and Hermitian Eigenvalue Decomposition¶
The first four routines compute all or selected eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a real symmetric matrix :

cvxopt.lapack.
syev
(A, W[, jobz = 'N', uplo = 'L'])¶ Eigenvalue decomposition of a real symmetric matrix of order .
W
is a real matrix of length at least . On exit,W
contains the eigenvalues in ascending order. Ifjobz
is'V'
, the eigenvectors are also computed and returned inA
. Ifjobz
is'N'
, the eigenvectors are not returned and the contents ofA
are destroyed.Raises an
ArithmeticError
if the eigenvalue decomposition fails.

cvxopt.lapack.
syevd
(A, W[, jobz = 'N', uplo = 'L'])¶ This is an alternative to
syev
, based on a different algorithm. It is faster on large problems, but also uses more memory.

cvxopt.lapack.
syevx
(A, W[, jobz = 'N', range = 'A', uplo = 'L', vl = 0.0, vu = 0.0, il = 1, iu = 1, Z = None])¶ Computes selected eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a real symmetric matrix of order .
W
is a real matrix of length at least . On exit,W
contains the eigenvalues in ascending order. Ifrange
is'A'
, all the eigenvalues are computed. Ifrange
is'I'
, eigenvalues through are computed, where . Ifrange
is'V'
, the eigenvalues in the interval are computed.If
jobz
is'V'
, the (normalized) eigenvectors are computed, and returned inZ
. Ifjobz
is'N'
, the eigenvectors are not computed. In both cases, the contents ofA
are destroyed on exit.Z
is optional (and not referenced) ifjobz
is'N'
. It is required ifjobz
is'V'
and must have at least columns ifrange
is'A'
or'V'
and at least columns ifrange
is'I'
.syevx
returns the number of computed eigenvalues.

cvxopt.lapack.
syevr
(A, W[, jobz = 'N', range = 'A', uplo = 'L', vl = 0.0, vu = 0.0, il = 1, iu = n, Z = None])¶ This is an alternative to
syevx
.syevr
is the most recent LAPACK routine for symmetric eigenvalue problems, and expected to supersede the three other routines in future releases.
The next four routines can be used to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors for complex Hermitian matrices:
For real symmetric matrices they are identical to the corresponding
syev*
routines.

cvxopt.lapack.
heev
(A, W[, jobz = 'N', uplo = 'L'])¶ Eigenvalue decomposition of a real symmetric or complex Hermitian matrix of order .
The calling sequence is identical to
syev
, except thatA
can be real or complex.

cvxopt.lapack.
heevx
(A, W[, jobz = 'N', range = 'A', uplo = 'L', vl = 0.0, vu = 0.0, il = 1, iu = n, Z = None])¶ Computes selected eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a real symmetric or complex Hermitian matrix.
The calling sequence is identical to
syevx
, except thatA
can be real or complex.Z
must have the same type asA
.
Generalized Symmetric Definite Eigenproblems¶
Three types of generalized eigenvalue problems can be solved:
(2)
with and real symmetric or complex Hermitian, and is positive definite. The matrix of eigenvectors is normalized as follows:

cvxopt.lapack.
sygv
(A, B, W[, itype = 1, jobz = 'N', uplo = 'L'])¶ Solves the generalized eigenproblem (2) for real symmetric matrices of order , stored in real matrices
A
andB
.itype
is an integer with possible values 1, 2, 3, and specifies the type of eigenproblem.W
is a real matrix of length at least . On exit, it contains the eigenvalues in ascending order. On exit,B
contains the Cholesky factor of . Ifjobz
is'V'
, the eigenvectors are computed and returned inA
. Ifjobz
is'N'
, the eigenvectors are not returned and the contents ofA
are destroyed.
Singular Value Decomposition¶

cvxopt.lapack.
gesvd
(A, S[, jobu = 'N', jobvt = 'N', U = None, Vt = None])¶ Singular value decomposition
of a real or complex by matrix .
S
is a real matrix of length at least min{, }. On exit, its first min{, } elements are the singular values in descending order.The argument
jobu
controls how many left singular vectors are computed. The possible values are'N'
,'A'
,'S'
and'O'
. Ifjobu
is'N'
, no left singular vectors are computed. Ifjobu
is'A'
, all left singular vectors are computed and returned as columns ofU
. Ifjobu
is'S'
, the first min{, } left singular vectors are computed and returned as columns ofU
. Ifjobu
is'O'
, the first min{, } left singular vectors are computed and returned as columns ofA
. The argumentU
is None(ifjobu
is'N'
or'A'
) or a matrix of the same type asA
.The argument
jobvt
controls how many right singular vectors are computed. The possible values are'N'
,'A'
,'S'
and'O'
. Ifjobvt
is'N'
, no right singular vectors are computed. Ifjobvt
is'A'
, all right singular vectors are computed and returned as rows ofVt
. Ifjobvt
is'S'
, the first min{, } right singular vectors are computed and their (conjugate) transposes are returned as rows ofVt
. Ifjobvt
is'O'
, the first min{, } right singular vectors are computed and their (conjugate) transposes are returned as rows ofA
. Note that the (conjugate) transposes of the right singular vectors (i.e., the matrix ) are returned inVt
orA
. The argumentVt
can beNone
(ifjobvt
is'N'
or'A'
) or a matrix of the same type asA
.On exit, the contents of
A
are destroyed.

cvxopt.lapack.
gesdd
(A, S[, jobz = 'N', U = None, Vt = None])¶ Singular value decomposition of a real or complex by matrix.. This function is based on a divideandconquer algorithm and is faster than
gesvd
.S
is a real matrix of length at least min{, }. On exit, its first min{, } elements are the singular values in descending order.The argument
jobz
controls how many singular vectors are computed. The possible values are'N'
,'A'
,'S'
and'O'
. Ifjobz
is'N'
, no singular vectors are computed. Ifjobz
is'A'
, all left singular vectors are computed and returned as columns ofU
and all right singular vectors are computed and returned as rows ofVt
. Ifjobz
is'S'
, the first min{, } left and right singular vectors are computed and returned as columns ofU
and rows ofVt
. Ifjobz
is'O'
and is greater than or equal to , the first left singular vectors are returned as columns ofA
and the right singular vectors are returned as rows ofVt
. Ifjobz
is'O'
and is less than , the left singular vectors are returned as columns ofU
and the first right singular vectors are returned as rows ofA
. Note that the (conjugate) transposes of the right singular vectors are returned inVt
orA
.The argument
U
can beNone
(ifjobz
is'N'
or'A'
ofjobz
is'O'
and is greater than or equal to ) or a matrix of the same type asA
. The argumentVt
can be None(ifjobz
is'N'
or'A'
orjobz
is'O'
and :math`m` is less than ) or a matrix of the same type asA
.On exit, the contents of
A
are destroyed.
Schur and Generalized Schur Factorization¶

cvxopt.lapack.
gees
(A[, w = None, V = None, select = None])¶ Computes the Schur factorization
of a real or complex by matrix .
If is real, the matrix of Schur vectors is orthogonal, and is a real upper quasitriangular matrix with 1 by 1 or 2 by 2 diagonal blocks. The 2 by 2 blocks correspond to complex conjugate pairs of eigenvalues of . If is complex, the matrix of Schur vectors is unitary, and is a complex upper triangular matrix with the eigenvalues of on the diagonal.
The optional argument
w
is a complex matrix of length at least . If it is provided, the eigenvalues ofA
are returned inw
. The optional argumentV
is an by matrix of the same type asA
. If it is provided, then the Schur vectors are returned inV
.The argument
select
is an optional ordering routine. It must be a Python function that can be called asf(s)
with a complex arguments
, and returnsTrue
orFalse
. The eigenvalues for whichselect
returnsTrue
will be selected to appear first along the diagonal. (In the real Schur factorization, if either one of a complex conjugate pair of eigenvalues is selected, then both are selected.)On exit,
A
is replaced with the matrix . The functiongees
returns an integer equal to the number of eigenvalues that were selected by the ordering routine. Ifselect
isNone
, thengees
returns 0.
As an example we compute the complex Schur form of the matrix
>>> A = matrix([[7., 5., 11., 4., 13.], [11., 3., 11., 8., 19.], [6., 3., 5., 0., 12.],
[4., 12., 14., 8., 8.], [11., 0., 9., 6., 10.]])
>>> S = matrix(A, tc='z')
>>> w = matrix(0.0, (5,1), 'z')
>>> lapack.gees(S, w)
0
>>> print(S)
[ 5.67e+00+j1.69e+01 2.13e+01+j2.85e+00 1.40e+00+j5.88e+00 4.19e+00+j2.05e01 3.19e+00j1.01e+01]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 5.67e+00j1.69e+01 1.09e+01+j5.93e01 3.29e+00j1.26e+00 1.26e+01+j7.80e+00]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 1.27e+01+j3.43e17 6.83e+00+j2.18e+00 5.31e+00j1.69e+00]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 1.31e+01j0.00e+00 2.60e01j0.00e+00]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 7.86e+00j0.00e+00]
>>> print(w)
[ 5.67e+00+j1.69e+01]
[ 5.67e+00j1.69e+01]
[ 1.27e+01+j3.43e17]
[1.31e+01j0.00e+00]
[7.86e+00j0.00e+00]
An ordered Schur factorization with the eigenvalues in the left half of the complex plane ordered first, can be computed as follows.
>>> S = matrix(A, tc='z')
>>> def F(x): return (x.real < 0.0)
...
>>> lapack.gees(S, w, select = F)
2
>>> print(S)
[1.31e+01j0.00e+00 1.72e01+j7.93e02 2.81e+00+j1.46e+00 3.79e+00j2.67e01 5.14e+00j4.84e+00]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 7.86e+00j0.00e+00 1.43e+01+j8.31e+00 5.17e+00+j8.79e+00 2.35e+00j7.86e01]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 5.67e+00+j1.69e+01 1.71e+01j1.41e+01 1.83e+00j4.63e+00]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 5.67e+00j1.69e+01 8.75e+00+j2.88e+00]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 1.27e+01+j3.43e17]
>>> print(w)
[1.31e+01j0.00e+00]
[7.86e+00j0.00e+00]
[ 5.67e+00+j1.69e+01]
[ 5.67e+00j1.69e+01]
[ 1.27e+01+j3.43e17]

cvxopt.lapack.
gges
(A, B[, a = None, b = None, Vl = None, Vr = None, select = None])¶ Computes the generalized Schur factorization
of a pair of real or complex by matrices , .
If and are real, then the matrices of left and right Schur vectors and are orthogonal, is a real upper quasitriangular matrix with 1 by 1 or 2 by 2 diagonal blocks, and is a real triangular matrix with nonnegative diagonal. The 2 by 2 blocks along the diagonal of correspond to complex conjugate pairs of generalized eigenvalues of , . If and are complex, the matrices of left and right Schur vectors and are unitary, is complex upper triangular, and is complex upper triangular with nonnegative real diagonal.
The optional arguments
a
andb
are'z'
and'd'
matrices of length at least . If these are provided, the generalized eigenvalues ofA
,B
are returned ina
andb
. (The generalized eigenvalues are the ratiosa[k] / b[k]
.) The optional argumentsVl
andVr
are by matrices of the same type asA
andB
. If they are provided, then the left Schur vectors are returned inVl
and the right Schur vectors are returned inVr
.The argument
select
is an optional ordering routine. It must be a Python function that can be called asf(x,y)
with a complex argumentx
and a real argumenty
, and returnsTrue
orFalse
. The eigenvalues for whichselect
returnsTrue
will be selected to appear first on the diagonal. (In the real Schur factorization, if either one of a complex conjugate pair of eigenvalues is selected, then both are selected.)On exit,
A
is replaced with the matrix andB
is replaced with the matrix . The functiongges
returns an integer equal to the number of eigenvalues that were selected by the ordering routine. Ifselect
isNone
, thengges
returns 0.
As an example, we compute the generalized complex Schur form of the matrix of the previous example, and
>>> A = matrix([[7., 5., 11., 4., 13.], [11., 3., 11., 8., 19.], [6., 3., 5., 0., 12.],
[4., 12., 14., 8., 8.], [11., 0., 9., 6., 10.]])
>>> B = matrix(0.0, (5,5))
>>> B[:19:6] = 1.0
>>> S = matrix(A, tc='z')
>>> T = matrix(B, tc='z')
>>> a = matrix(0.0, (5,1), 'z')
>>> b = matrix(0.0, (5,1))
>>> lapack.gges(S, T, a, b)
0
>>> print(S)
[ 6.64e+00j8.87e+00 7.81e+00j7.53e+00 6.16e+00j8.51e01 1.18e+00+j9.17e+00 5.88e+00j4.51e+00]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 8.48e+00+j1.13e+01 2.12e01+j1.00e+01 5.68e+00+j2.40e+00 2.47e+00+j9.38e+00]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 1.39e+01j0.00e+00 6.78e+00j0.00e+00 1.09e+01j0.00e+00]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 6.62e+00j0.00e+00 2.28e01j0.00e+00]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 2.89e+01j0.00e+00]
>>> print(T)
[ 6.46e01j0.00e+00 4.29e01j4.79e02 2.02e01j3.71e01 1.08e01j1.98e01 1.95e01+j3.58e01]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 8.25e01j0.00e+00 2.17e01+j3.11e01 1.16e01+j1.67e01 2.10e01j3.01e01]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 7.41e01j0.00e+00 3.25e01j0.00e+00 5.87e01j0.00e+00]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 8.75e01j0.00e+00 4.84e01j0.00e+00]
[ 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00 0.00e+00j0.00e+00]
>>> print(a)
[ 6.64e+00j8.87e+00]
[ 8.48e+00+j1.13e+01]
[1.39e+01j0.00e+00]
[6.62e+00j0.00e+00]
[2.89e+01j0.00e+00]
>>> print(b)
[ 6.46e01]
[ 8.25e01]
[ 7.41e01]
[ 8.75e01]
[ 0.00e+00]
Example: Analytic Centering¶
The analytic centering problem is defined as
In the code below we solve the problem using Newton’s method. At each iteration the Newton direction is computed by solving a positive definite set of linear equations
(where has rows ), and a suitable step size is determined by a backtracking line search.
We use the level3 BLAS function blas.syrk
to
form the Hessian
matrix and the LAPACK function posv
to
solve the Newton system.
The code can be further optimized by replacing the matrixvector products
with the level2 BLAS function blas.gemv
.
from cvxopt import matrix, log, mul, div, blas, lapack
from math import sqrt
def acent(A,b):
"""
Returns the analytic center of A*x <= b.
We assume that b > 0 and the feasible set is bounded.
"""
MAXITERS = 100
ALPHA = 0.01
BETA = 0.5
TOL = 1e8
m, n = A.size
x = matrix(0.0, (n,1))
H = matrix(0.0, (n,n))
for iter in xrange(MAXITERS):
# Gradient is g = A^T * (1./(bA*x)).
d = (b  A*x)**1
g = A.T * d
# Hessian is H = A^T * diag(d)^2 * A.
Asc = mul( d[:,n*[0]], A )
blas.syrk(Asc, H, trans='T')
# Newton step is v = H^1 * g.
v = g
lapack.posv(H, v)
# Terminate if Newton decrement is less than TOL.
lam = blas.dot(g, v)
if sqrt(lam) < TOL: return x
# Backtracking line search.
y = mul(A*v, d)
step = 1.0
while 1step*max(y) < 0: step *= BETA
while True:
if sum(log(1step*y)) < ALPHA*step*lam: break
step *= BETA
x += step*v